Bovine Colostrum is the substance being produced by cows in the first 24 hours of lactation.

Colostrum provides Immunoglobulins (Iga, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM). These immunoglobulins are identical in all mammals, including humans.

Other important immune factors contained in Colostrum are Lactoferrin, Proline –rich Polypeptide, Lysozyme, Cytokines, Interleukin-10, Glycoproteins and Trypsin Inhibitors.

Colostrum is effective in assisting the human body in its fight against opportunistic infections.

Colostrum has been shown to have the potential to stop Leaky Gut Syndrome.

Colostrum adsorbs H.Pylori, and thus reduces the amount of organisms available for infection of the gastric mucosa to cause peptic ulcers.

Colostrum boosts the immune system, and helps the body to burn fat and build lean muscle. It may also accelerate the healing of injuries, increase vitality and stamina, and have an anti-aging effect. 

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Plant Sterols ( b -Sitosterols).

b -Sitosterols has been shown in various studies to increase the body's production of T-Lymphocytes- particularly referring to the CD-4 count -, Interleukin II and Interferon n l , with a simultaneous significant reduction of the viral load in HIV-positive patients. In this regard the plant sterols will assist the HIV-positive patient in the fight to keep their immune system relatively intact. This will then also improve this patient's ability to fight off opportunistic infections e.g. tuberculosis and other bacterial and viral infections.

While b -sitosterols enhances the proliferation of T Lymphocytes by up to 900%, it is also metabolized by the body to produce b -sitosterolins in the liver, which then enhances secretion of the following cytokines: Interleuken 2, Interleukin 12 and Gamma Interferon. These cytokines are known as the TH1 family of cytokines and are associated with cell-mediated immunity. This type of immunity is of crucial importance in the body's fight against pathogenic organisms which penetrate cells, such as the HI-Virus and the TB bacterium.

Plant Sterols also stimulate activity of the Natural Killer cells (NK Cells) for the lysis of cancer cells.

Although sterols have no direct anti-viral activity, it indirectly lowers the HIV-viral load in three important ways:

  • Increasing T-lymphocyte activity and proliferation;
  • It slightly declines the programmed cell death of the CD4 subset, which is responsible for the rapid loss of CD4 lymphocytes in HIV / AIDS cases (CD4 cells live longer);
  • It reduces serum levels of the pro-inflammatory Interleukin-6, which has been implicated in the induction of HIV replication in infected cells.

Studies have shown sterols to possess highly potent anti-inflammatory (similar to cortisone) and anti-pyretic or fever-reducing (similar to aspirin / ASA) properties.

Immune dysregulation occurs when the humoral (B-Lymphocyte) and cell-mediated (T-Lymphocyte) sides of the immune system become imbalanced, with consequences ranging from auto-immune diseases to cancers and impaired immunity. Plant sterols effectively assists in balancing the immune system.

b -Sitosterol has also been shown in a clinical trial to have a significant effect on benign prostatic hyperplasia and chronic prostatitis.

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Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC's) are a class of flavonoids, water-soluble antioxidants.

The combination of grape seed extract and pine bark extract in Moducydin provides a wide range of OPC's. These are powerful immune-boosting antioxidants, scavenging for free radicals mainly in the water soluble compartment of the body, and performing natural anti-inflammatory action.

OPC's stimulates collagen formation in the body. Collagen makes up an integral part of cartilage, vascular walls etc. – therefore helping to prevent deterioration of cartilage and hardening of vascular walls.

Another main benefit of OPC's is that it boosts blood circulation, which is essential for optimum health since blood is needed to carry nutrients and oxygen to cells all around the body, and removes toxic metabolic waste products from the cells. OPC's has also demonstrated improvement in chronic venous insufficiency, reducing related edema and pain – primarily in the lower limbs.

Apart from quenching free radicals, OPC's potentiate other antioxidants: it has been shown to increase Vit C's life span with up to 400% and to boost Vit E levels and activity with up to 15%.

Oxidized LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol is a main culprit in the development of atherosclerosis, after attachment to the interior lining of blood vessels, and provoking responses like inflammation, smooth muscle proliferation and clotting mechanisms. OPC's have been shown to reduce and even prevent oxidation of LDL and inhibit smoking-induced platelet aggregation in smokers.

Research also indicates that OPC can play an important role in natural cancer prevention by neutralizing carcinogenic nitrosamines.

Due to its natural antihistamine action OPC's can relieve allergies, hay fever and asthma.

Because of the relative short half-life time of OPC's, they need to be taken on a daily basis to exert their maximum protective effects in the blood.

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On its own, spirulina is a low-fat, low-calorie and cholesterol-free source of proteins (up to 74% of dry mass, 16 amino acids (of which eight are essential amino acids, including leucine, valine and isoleucine), vitamins, essential fatty acids and phytonutrients.

It delivers impressive amounts of beta-carotene, Vit-B Complex (especially B12), iron, essential trace minerals, linoleic acid and chlorophyll. It contains quantities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) that plays an important role as a health food and as a therapeutic agent for cancer and other diseases.

Spirulina has been shown to assist in improving the body's immune system, while providing good energy.

The following benefits of Spirulina have been listed:

  • Increased anti-viral activity including HIV
  • Lower cholesterol
  • Reduced risk of cancer
  • Stimulation of the immune system
  • Reduction of kidney toxicity
  • Building of healthy lactobacilli
  • Improved wound healing
  • Elimination of malnutrition (treatment of kwashiorkor)
  • Reduction in radiation sickness
  • Natural weight control
  • Relief of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS)
  • Conditioners for athletes and bodybuilders
  • Anti-ageing
  • Relief of the symptoms of excessive alcohol consumption (morning after)
  • Natural antibiotic activity
  • Diabetic support

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Grapefruit Extract. 

Grapefruit extract exhibits natural anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, as well as showing activity against fungi and parasites. It has been said to fight Candida, Herpes, flu and diarrhea .

Grapefruit extract improves weight management, metabolism, and digestion.

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Alpha Lipoic Acid ( ALA ).

•  one of nature's best kept secrets – 

Also known as Protogen A, Lipoic Acid is a vitamin-like, potent anti-oxidant, scavenging the body for Hydroxyl Free Radicals. It is sometimes referred to as the “universal antioxidant” as it is soluble in both fat and water. It is manufactured in small quantities by the body, and found in some foods, particularly liver and yeast. It increases the long term energy levels of the body.

Benefits of Alpha Lipoic Acid :

  • Retards some aspects of the Ageing Process.
    Helps to prevent atherosclerosis
    Helps to preserve the mitochondria of cells
    Reduces the effects of exposure to radioactivity
  • The Eyes and Vision ( ALA is able to penetrate eye tissue):
    1. Helps to prevent Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD)
    2. Reduces the risk of Cataracts
    3. Alleviates Glaucoma
    4. Protects the Lens and the Retina from degeneration
  • The Immune System:
  • Alpha Lipoic Acid helps to improve overall health of AIDS patients by:
  • -Increasing plasma Glutathione levels
  • -Increasing plasma Vit C levels

-Retarding replication of the HI-Virus by inhibiting the HIV Viral Reverse Transcriptase Enzyme that participates in the replication of HIV, and by inhibiting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-Kappa B) that activates HIV replication.

•  ALA may help prevent cancer by reducing free radical damage to the cell's DNA, which is one of the underlying mechanisms in the initiation of cancer
•  ALA stimulates and helps to revitalize the immune system in general.

  • Metabolism:

•  Antioxidant action in both the water- and fat soluble compartments of the body
•  Potent free radical scavenger
•  ALA increases the body's Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
•  Helps to normalize blood sugar levels
•  Acts as coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism
•  Facilitates muscle recovery after exercise
•  Acts as coenzyme in metabolism of Fatty Acids
•  Reduces insulin resistance by increasing insulin sensitivity
•  Acts as coenzyme in Protein metabolism
•  ALA is essential for the decarboxylation of Pyruvic Acid and other Keto Acids
•  Helps to protect the liver from toxic effects of pharmaceutical drugs
ALA improves the body's utilization of Glucose within the muscles and increases the body's production of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) within the muscles.

  • Nervous System:

•  Helps to protect the Brain against the toxic effects of ischemia
•  Enhances Long-Term Memory (but only in elderly persons)
•  Helps to reverse Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

ALA enhances the function of the following:

  • Carbohydrates by improving glucose metabolism within the muscles and facilitating the conversion of glycogen into glucose
  • Enzymes by protecting them against oxidation
  • Krebbs Energy Cycle by increasing the production of ATP
  • Peptides – ALA increases intracellular Glutatione levels
  • Proteins – ALA inhibits the glycosylation of some types of endogenous proteins
  • Quinones – ALA regenerates Coenzyme Q10
  • Vitamins – ALA helps recycle Vitamin C, regenerate Vitamin E

In terms of potentially toxic substance:

  • ALA increases the survival rate of people who have consumed Amanita phalloides mushrooms
  • ALA chelates (binds to and removes) accumulated Cadmium from the body and helps to prevent Cadmium from damaging the liver.
  • ALA chelates accumulated Mercury from the body.
  • ALA regenerates Dehydroascorbic Acid back to Ascorbic Acid  

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Selenium's principal function is to inhibit the oxidation of lipids as a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. It is a vital antioxidant, especially when combined with vitamin E. It protects the immune system by preventing the formation of free radicals that can damage the body.

Selenium plays a vital role in regulating the effects of thyroid hormone on fat metabolism, and functions as a preventive against certain kinds of tumors.

Selenium and vitamin E act synergistically to aid in the production of antibodies and to help maintain a healthy heart and liver. It is needed for pancreatic function and tissue elasticity. When combined with vitamin e and zinc, it may also provide relief from an enlarged prostate.

Selenium supplementation has been found to protect the liver in people with alcoholic cirrhosis.

Selenium deficiency has been linked to cancer and heart disease. It has also been associated with exhaustion, growth impairment, pancreatic insufficiency and sterility.

Symptoms of excessively high selenium levels can include arthritis, brittle nails, garlicky breath odor, gastrointestinal disorders, hair loss, irritability, liver and kidney impairment, a metallic taste in the mouth, pallor, skin eruptions, tooth loss and yellowish skin.

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Zinc is essential in prostate gland function and the growth of the reproductive organs. It may help prevent acne and regulate the activity of oil glands. It is required for protein synthesis and collagen formation, and promotes a healthy immune system and the healing of wounds.

Zinc also allows acuity of smell and taste. It protects the liver from chemical damage and is vital for bone formation. It is a constituent of insulin and many vital enzymes, including the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD).

Sufficient intake and absorption of zinc are needed to maintain the proper concentration of vitamin E in the blood, and zinc also increases the absorption of vitamin A.

Zinc deficiency may result in the loss of the senses of taste and smell. It can also cause fingernails to become thin, peel and develop white spots, acne, delayed sexual maturation, fatigue, growth impairment, hair loss, high cholesterol levels, impaired night vision, impotence, increased susceptibility to infection, infertility, memory impairment, a propensity to diabetes, prostate trouble, recurrent colds and flu, skin lesions, and slow wound healing. 

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Vitamin A 

Vitamin A prevents night blindness and other eye problems, as well as some skin disorders, such as acne. It enhances immunity, may help to heal gastro-intestinal ulcers, and is needed for the maintenance and repair of epithelial tissue, of which the skin and mucous membranes are composed. It is important in the formation of bones and teeth, and protects against colds, flu and infections of the kidneys, bladder, lungs and mucous membranes. On the biochemical side it is needed for the differentiation of cells from their mother cells.

Vitamin A guards against heart disease and stroke, lowers cholesterol levels and slows down the aging process. PROTEINS CANNOT BE UTILISED BY THE BODY WITHOUT VITAMIN A.

A deficiency in Vitamin A can lead to dry hair and/or skin, dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea, poor growth and / or night blindness, insomnia, fatigue, reproductive difficulties, sinusitis, pneumonia, frequent colds and other respiratory infections, skin disorders including acne and unhealthy weight loss. 

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B- Vitamins 

The B-vitamins are important in the proper energy production processes in the body cells. It supports the body's biochemical reactions in diseases and improves the functioning of the nervous system and neurotransmitter synthesis. The net result of this is an improved feeling of well-being and enhancement of the healing processes of the body.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) 

Thiamine enhances circulation and assists in blood formation, carbohydrate metabolism and the production of hydrochloric acid, which is important for proper digestion, and also optimizes cognitive activity and brain function.

Thiamine has a positive effect on energy, growth, normal appetite and learning capacity, and is needed for proper muscle tone of the intestines, stomach and heart.

Thiamine also acts as an antioxidant, protecting the body against the degenerative effects of aging, alcohol consumption and smoking.

Thiamine deficiency can cause Beriberi in serious cases- a nervous system disease that is rare in developed countries. Other symptoms include constipation, edema, enlarged liver, fatigue, forgetfulness, gastrointestinal disturbances, heart changes, irritability, labored breathing, loss of appetite, muscle atrophy, nervousness, numbness of hands and feet, pain and sensitivity, poor coordination, tingling sensations, weak and sore muscles, general weakness, and severe weight loss. 

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 

Vit B2 is necessary for red blood cell formation, anti-body production, cell respiration, and growth. It relieves eye fatigue and is important in the prevention and treatment of cataracts. It aids in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. Together with vitamin A it maintains and improves the mucous membranes in the digestive tract.

Riboflavin also facilitates the use of oxygen by the tissues of the skin, nails and hair, eliminates dandruff and helps the absorption of iron and vitamin B6.

It is essential to absorb adequate amounts of riboflavin during pregnancy, because a lack of this vitamin can damage a developing fetus even if the mother does not show any signs of deficiency.

Riboflavin is needed for the conversion of tryptophan to niacin in the body.

Deficiency of Vit B2 can cause cracks and sores in the corner of the mouth, eye disorders, inflammation of the mouth and tongue, and skin lesions. This group of symptoms is collectively known as ariboflavinosis. Other symptoms include dermatitis, dizziness, hair loss insomnia, light sensitivity, poor digestion, retarded growth and slowed mental response.

Carpal tunnel syndrome may benefit from a treatment program that includes riboflavin and pyridoxine. 

Vitamin B3 (Nicotinic Acid) 

Vitamin B3 is needed for proper circulation and healthy skin. It aids in the functioning of the nervous system, the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, and in the production of hydrochloric acid for the digestive system. It is involved in the normal secretion of bile and stomach fluids, and in the synthesis of sex hormones. It lowers cholesterol and improves circulation. It is helpful for schizophrenia and other mental illnesses, and improves memory.

Deficiency in VitB3 can cause Pellagra, canker sores, dementia, depression, diarrhea, dizziness, fatigue, halitosis, headaches, indigestion, insomnia, limb pains, loss of appetite, low blood sugar, muscular weakness, skin eruptions and inflammation. 

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

VitB5 is known as the “anti-stress vitamin”, and plays a role in the production of the adrenal hormones and the formation of antibodies, aids in vitamin utilization, and helps to convert fats, carbohydrates and proteins into energy. It is required by all cells in the body and is concentrated in the organs. It is involved in the production of neurotransmitters, and is an essential element of coenzyme A, a vital body chemical involved in many necessary metabolic functions.

VitB5 is also a stamina enhancer and prevents certain forms of anemia. It is needed for normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and may be helpful in treating depression and anxiety.

VitB5 deficiency may cause fatigue, headache, nausea and tingling in the hands, and is needed for proper functioning of the adrenal glands.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) 

Vitamin B6 is involved in more bodily functions than almost any other single nutrient. It affects both physical and mental health. It is beneficial in cases of water retention, and is necessary for the production of hydrochloric acid and the absorption of fats and protein.

Pyridoxine aids in maintaining sodium and potassium balance, and promotes red blood cell formation. It is required by the nervous system and is needed for normal brain function and for RNA and DNA synthesis, which contain the genetic instructions for the reproduction of all cells and for normal cellular growth. It activates many enzymes and aids in the absorption of Vitamin B12, in immune function and in antibody production.

Pyridoxine is involved in cancer immunity and aids in the prevention of arteriosclerosis. It inhibits the formation of homocysteine, a toxic substance that attacks the heart muscle and allows the deposition of cholesterol around the heart muscle.

Pyridoxine acts as a mild diuretic, reducing the symptoms of PMS and may be useful in preventing certain kinds of kidney stones. It is also helpful in the treatment of allergies, arthritis and asthma.

VitB6 deficiency can result in anemia, convulsions, headaches, nausea, flaky skin, a sore tongue, and vomiting, acne, anorexia, arthritis, conjunctivitis, cracks or sores on the mouth and lips, depression, dizziness, fatigue, hyperirritability, impaired wound healing, inflammation of the mouth and gums, learning difficulties, impaired memory or memory loss, hair loss, hearing problems, numbness, oily facial skin, stunted growth, and tingling sensations. Carpal tunnel syndrome has been linked to a deficiency of vitamin B6 as well. 

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)

Vitamin B12 is needed to prevent anemia. It aids folic acid in regulating the formation of red blood cells, and helps in the utilization of iron.

Vitamin B12 is required for proper digestion, absorption of foods, the synthesis of protein, and the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.

It aids in cell formation and cellular longevity, prevents nerve damage, maintains fertility, and promotes normal growth and development by maintaining the fatty sheaths that cover and protect nerve endings.

Vitamin B12 is linked to the production of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that assists memory and learning.

Vitamin B12 supplementation has been shown to enhance sleep patterns, allowing for more restful and refreshing sleep.

Vitamin B12 deficiency can not only be caused by dietary deficiencies, but also mal-absorption, which is most common in elderly people and those with digestive disorders.

Deficiency can cause abnormal gait, bone loss, chronic fatigue, constipation, depression, digestive disorders, dizziness, drowsiness, enlargement of the liver, eye disorders, hallucinations, headaches (including migraines), inflammation of the tongue, irritability, labored breathing, memory loss, moodiness, nervousness, neurological damage, palpitations, pernicious anemia, ringing in the ears, and spinal cord degeneration.

Vegetarians and vegans must note that Vit B12 occur almost exclusively in animal tissues and they need to supplement. Vitamin B12 can be stored in the body for up to five years, but without supplementation signs of deficiency will eventually develop. 

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Vitamin C 

Vitamin C is required for at least 300 metabolic functions in the body, including tissue growth and repair, adrenal gland function and healthy gums.

Vitamin C also aids in the production of anti-stress hormones and interferon, an important immune-system protein, and is needed for the metabolism of folic acid, tyrosine and phenylalanine.

Studies have shown that taking vitamin C can reduce symptoms of asthma, protects against the harmful effects of pollution, helps to prevent cancer, protects against infection, and enhances immunity. Vitamin C increases the absorption of iron. It can bind to toxic substances, such as certain heavy metals, and render them harmless so that they can be eliminated from the body.

Vitamin C assists in the reduction of LDL cholesterol, as well as lowering high blood pressure and helping to prevent atherosclerosis

Essential for the synthesis of collagen in the body, Vitamin C protects against abnormal blood clotting and bruising, may reduce the risk of cataracts, and promotes the healing of wounds and burns. Collagen provides much of the framework in the cells or tissues. In the absence of it, for example, no bone or cartilage will be formed. Vitamin C is also one of the most important anti-oxidants in the water-soluble compartment of the body. The role of Vitamin C in combating infectious diseases like colds and flu is well known.

Vitamin C works synergistically with vitamin E and beta-carotene. These vitamins reinforce and extend each other's antioxidant activity.

Serious Vitamin C deficiency can result in scurvy – a disease characterized by poor wound healing, soft and spongy bleeding gums, edema, extreme weakness, and “pinpoint” hemorrhages under the skin. Lesser degrees of deficiency can result in gums that bleed when being brushed, increased susceptibility to infection, especially colds and bronchial infections, joint pains, lack of energy, poor digestion, prolonged wound healing time, a tendency to bleed easily and tooth loss.

The formula of Moducydin creates a “ long-acting” Vitamin C , combining it with other ingredient like Alpha Lipoic Acid and OPC's which increase its life span and regenerates it, ensuring a longer presence of a higher level of Vitamin C in the body to protect the body longer.

More interesting facts about Vitamin C:

  • In a study, 100 terminally ill cancer patients taking supplemental Vit C, lived four times as long as 1000 control patients who received no added Vitamin C. The 100 patients' quality of life was greatly improved, and experienced less pain.
  • Under the influence of Vitamin C, cholesterol is broken down and eliminated as bile acids

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that has properties of both a vitamin and a hormone, and is required for the absorption and utilization of calcium and phosphorus. It is necessary for growth and is especially important for the normal growth and development of bones and teeth in children. It protects against muscle weakness and is involved in the regulation of the heartbeat. It is also important in the prevention and treatment of breast and colon cancer, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and hypocalcemia, enhances immunity, and is necessary for thyroid function and normal blood clotting.

Vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults, loss of appetite, a burning sensation in the mouth and throat, diarrhea, insomnia, visual problems, and weight loss. The New England Journal of Medicine reported recently that there are indications that Vitamin D deficiency is much more widespread than previously thought, especially in older adults

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Vitamin E  

Vitamin E is important in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. It improves circulation, is necessary for tissue repair, and is useful in treating premenstrual syndrome and fibrocystic disease of the breast. It promotes normal blood clotting and healing, reduces scarring from some wounds, reduces blood pressure, aids in preventing cataracts, improves athletic performance, relaxes leg cramps, maintains healthy nerves and muscles while strengthening capillary walls. It also promotes healthy skin and hair, and helps to prevent anemia and retrolental fibroplasia, an eye disorder that can affect premature infants.

As, among others, a potent anti-oxidant in the fat-soluble compartment of the body, vitamin E is essential to immune function. This function of vitamin E helps to protect the thymus gland and circulating white blood cells from oxidative damage. Vitamin E is very important in protecting the immune system from damage during times of oxidative stress and chronic viral, bacterial and fungal infections.

Vitamin E deficiency may result in damage to red blood cells and destruction of nerves. Signs of deficiency can include infertility both in men and women, menstrual problems, neuromuscular impairment, shorter red blood cell lifespan, spontaneous abortion, and uterine degeneration. Low vitamin E levels in the body have been linked to both bowel cancer and breast cancer.

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Vitamin H (Biotin) 

Biotin aids in cell growth, fatty acid production, in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins; and in the utilization of other B-complex vitamins. Sufficient quantities are needed for healthy hair and skin. Biotin also promotes healthy sweat glands, nerve tissue, bone marrow and helps to relieve muscle pain.

Biotin deficiency can cause anemia, depression, hair loss, high blood sugar, inflammation or pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, insomnia, loss of appetite, muscular pain, nausea and soreness of the tongue. 

Folic Acid 

Folic acid is considered a brain food and is needed for energy production. It functions as a coenzyme together with Vitamins B12 and C in the breakdown and utilization of protein and performs its basic role as a transporter of haeme, the iron containing protein found in haemoglobin, which is necessary for the formation of red blood cells.

Because it functions as a coenzyme in DNA and RNA synthesis, it is important for healthy cell division and replication

It strengthens immunity by aiding in the proper formation and functioning of the white blood cells

As folic acid is necessary for the synthesis of DNA, it is absolutely critical for cellular division and multiplication. Without it there is no proper division of cells.

Folic Acid is suspected to be the most important nutrient in regulating homocysteine levels. Homocysteine is an amino acid that naturally forms in the body as the result of the breakdown of another amino acid, methionine. High homocysteine levels have been found to be associated with an increased risk of cardio-vascular disease as a result of atherosclerosis.


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•  Bouic P.J.D. et al 1999. The effects of B-Sitosterol and B-Sitosterol Glucoside Mixture on Selected Immune Parameters of Marathon Runners: Inhibition of Post Marathon Immune Suppression and Inflammation

•  Balch P.A. et al. 2000. Prescription of Nutritional Healing.

•  Hendler S.S. 1991. The Doctor's Vitamin and Mineral Encyclopedia.

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•  Hyperhealth V2000 database. 1999-2000

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•  Bitzan MM, Gold BD, , Philpott DJ, et al. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter mustelae binding to lipid receptors by bovine colostrum. J Infect Dis. 1998; 177:955-961.

•  Bouic, P.J.D.; Etsebeth, S.; Liebenberg, R.W.; Albrecht, C.F.; Pegel, K.; Van Jaarsveld, P.P. Source: International Journal of Immunopharmacology, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 693-700, Dec. 1996

•  M.B. Gupta, R. Nath, N. Srivastava, K. Shanker, K. Kishor and K.P. Bhargava Source: Planta medica (Journal of Medicinal Plant Research) vol. 39, pp. 157-163, 1980

•  Bouic, P.J.D.; Etsebeth, S.; Liebenberg, R.W.; Albrecht, C.F.; Pegel, K.; Van Jaarsveld, P.P.Source: International Journal of Immunopharmacology, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 693-700, Dec. 1996

•  Painter, F.M. Alternative Medicine Review Jun 2001

•  Klippel K.F.; Hiltl D.M.; Schipp B. (German BPH-Phyto Study group.) Source: British Journal of Urology, v. 80(3):pp. 427-32, Sept. 1997

•  Grobbelaar, J.U. - University of the Free State : Feasibility and Technical Information for the Production of Spirulina. –Unpublished.

•  Van Staden, A.M. et al. : Nutritional Status of HIV-1 seropositive patients in the Free State Province of South Africa – Laboratory parameters – Central African Journal of Medicine, Vol 44, No 10, 1998

•  Sterling , M.: Proanthocyanidin Power (Nutrition Science News –June 2000)

•  Balch, P.A. Prescription for Herbal Healing, 2002.

•  Ayehunie, S. et al: Inhibition of HIV-1 Replication by an Aqueous Extract of Spirulina Platensis (Arthrospira platensis)

•  Newbold, H.L. Vitamin C against cancer.

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